The anus is the final opening of the anal canal. It comprises highly sensitive glands, ducts, blood vessels, mucus, tissues, and nerve endings.

Depending on the underlying cause, an enlarged anus may be warm to the touch, cause sharp or burning pain (particularly after a bowel movement), and even produce bleeding and pus.

According to Dr. Purnendu Bhowmik, a proctologist in Kolkata, here are some reasons why a person’s anus might get swollen –

Anal Fissure

An anal fissure is a tear in the anal canal’s lining. It is caused due to:

  • hard bowel movements
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • chronic diarrhea
  • a tight anal sphincter muscle
  • anal tumors or infections (rarely).

Anal fissures are frequent and are frequently misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids.

Some anal fissure symptoms include pain during bowel movements that last up to a few hours, bleeding, and the formation of a lump close to the fissure.

According to one of the best fissure doctors in Kolkata, an anal fissure can be effectively cured with laser surgery.


Anusitis is a prevalent condition. Often misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids, it typically involves inflammation of the anal lining.

The symptoms include pain and a wet, sometimes bloody discharge. Anusitis is typically brought on by:

  • a diet high in acidic foods like coffee and citrus
  • extreme diarrhea
  • stress

External hemorrhoids

External hemorrhoids are enlarged blood vessels in the anus’ mucosal lining. They are prevalent, affecting three out of four adults. They may be the result of:

  • The act of straining during a bowel movement.
  • Low fiber intake.
  • Persistent diarrhea or constipation.

External hemorrhoids may manifest as a lump and may be painful and bleed. However, some hemorrhoids are painless and do not cause discomfort.

Anal Abscess

An anal abscess is a painful condition characterized by the formation of pus near the anus. The majority of anal abscesses are caused by infection of small anal glands.

A perianal abscess is a common type of abscess. This frequently manifests as a painful boil-like enlargement near the anus.

The condition can cause:

  • pain
  • swelling
  • lump near the anus
  • fever

According to the proctologists in Kolkata, people between 20 and 40 are more likely to develop anal abscesses. Men are also affected more frequently than women.

Anal Fistula

An anal fistula is a small tunnel between the bowel’s end and the skin near the anus.

The condition is usually the result of an infection near the anus, which causes pus to collect in the surrounding tissue.

When pus drains away, it may leave a small channel (fistula). 

Examples of symptoms include:

  • anal enlargement
  • irritation
  • pain
  • feces leakage

If you get diagnosed with anal fistula, the best treatment option is fistula laser treatment in Kolkata. It is less painful, causes minimal bleeding, and has a lesser chance of post-operative complications with effective results.

Perianal Crohn’s Disease

Crohn’s disease causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. It is a hereditary condition and affects the small intestine most of the time, but it can also affect the entire digestive tract, including the anus.

Symptoms of Crohn’s include anal fissures and fistulas.